Trump On Hairspray And Ozone
For at the very least 5 years, Donald Trump has been making false claims about hairspray and its affect on the ozone layer. Most just lately, the probably Republican presidential nominee made feedback at a marketing campaign rally in West Virginia:
– Trump said “hairspray’s not like it used to be” as a result of chemicals in it that affect the ozone layer have been banned. Many international locations began phasing out the ozone-depleting substances in hairspray within the late 1980s, but these laws wouldn’t affect the standard of hairspray.
– He additionally said utilizing hairspray in his condo, “which is all sealed,” would stop any ozone-depleting substances from escaping into the atmosphere. However these chemicals would nonetheless make their means out, a number of experts instructed us.
Hairspray is made up of chemicals that make hair stiff and a propellant. Hairspray and many other aerosols used chlorofluorocarbons as propellants till many major international locations started phasing out these chemicals after the signing of the Montreal Protocol in 1987. CFCs are potent ozone-depleting substances.
Within the place of CFCs, many nations started utilizing hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons as propellants in aerosols. CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs are all potent greenhouse gases. But HCFCs are about 5 % to 10 p.c as potent at depleting ozone as CFCs, whereas HFCs are usually not thought of as ozone-depleting substances. Although still used in different forms, HCFCs have been phased out of aerosols within the United States in 1994, while HFCs nonetheless remain in use.
Trump has made claims about hairspray and the ozone layer not less than thrice. Again in 2011 in Sydney, he implied the “eight-inch concrete floors” and “eight-inch concrete walls” of Trump Tower would prevent hairspray from “destroying the ozone that’s four hundred miles up in the air.” In December 2015, at a campaign rally in Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, Trump also stated he doesn’t “think anything gets out” of his “sealed” house when he makes use of hairspray.
On Could 5, 2016, at a campaign rally in Charleston, Trump implied that the regulations on hairspray and coal mining are both unwarranted. At the rally, an official from the West Virginia Coal Affiliation endorsed Trump and presented him with a tough hat. Trump tried on the hat, which prompted him to speak about his hair:
Trump, May 5: Give me a bit spray. … You know you’re not allowed to make use of hairspray anymore as a result of it affects the ozone, you understand that, proper I said, you imply to inform me, cause you realize hairspray’s not like it was, it used to be real good. … Right now you place the hairspray on, it’s good for 12 minutes, proper. … So if I take hairspray and that i spray it in my condominium, which is all sealed, you’re telling me that affects the ozone layer “Yes.” I say no manner of us. No means. No means. That’s like a variety of the foundations and rules you folks have in the mines, proper, it’s the identical type of stuff.
We contacted Trump’s campaign for remark, but it hasn’t responded. If somebody does get back to us, we are going to update this report accordingly. In the subsequent sections, we’ll define how and why many nations agreed to phase out CFCs and change them with HCFCs and HFCs. We’ll also explain why utilizing hairspray inside wouldn’t forestall ozone-depleting substances from reaching the ambiance, as Trump claimed.
International locations Comply with Ban CFCs
First developed in the nineteen thirties below the trade name Freon, CFCs have been originally assumed to be protected for the setting. For that reason, CFCs made their approach right into a slew of household gadgets, from the coolants used in refrigerators to Styrofoam to aerosols like hairspray.
However in the 1970s researchers started questioning the safety of those chemicals. Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina, chemists on the University of California, Irvine at the time, found that CFCs have been capable of depleting the ozone layer — profitable the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1995 for their work.
Then within the 1980s, scientists realized the ice particles in clouds over the Artic and Antarctic sped up the process Molina and Rowland originally discovered. Joseph Farman, a geophysicist on the British Antarctic Survey at the time, and researchers at NASA discovered a gap in the ozone layer above Antarctica that was roughly the dimensions of the United States.
How do CFCs deplete the ozone layer When a CFC molecule makes it to the stratosphere, photo voltaic radiation breaks it down, abandoning a lone chlorine atom. The chlorine atom (Cl-) then reacts with an ozone molecule (O3), forsaking chlorine oxide (ClO) and oxygen (O2). In actual fact, Molina discovered that one chlorine atom might start a series response that may lead to the break up of around 100,000 ozone molecules.
First off, a CFC molecule doesn’t have 400 miles to journey to succeed in the ozone layer, as Trump claimed in 2011. About 90 % of the ozone layer will be found between 6 to 10 miles above the earth’s surface, with the final 10 p.c of the ozone layer extending as far as 30 miles above the surface. The stratosphere spans 5.5 to 30 miles above the earth’s surface.
Second, a depleted ozone layer is not any small matter. A weakened ozone layer results in an increase in ultraviolet radiation, which then brings about larger rates of pores and skin most cancers, cataracts and immune system problems in human populations. Elevated UV radiation can even disrupt vital processes in plants and marine ecosystems.
The gravity of the difficulty prompted policymakers globally to sign the Montreal Protocol on Sept. 16, 1987. The agreement took effect on Jan. 1, 1989, and aimed to reduce the production and use of CFCs and different ozone-depleting substances. However, the protocol has been amended six instances to take into consideration new scientific data and speed up reductions in CFC and HCFC use. First signed by forty six nations, the protocol now has near 200 signatories, together with the United States.
In 2014, five worldwide entities, together with the United Nations Environmental Program and NASA, printed a report that found actions “taken beneath the Montreal Protocol have led to decreases within the atmospheric abundance of managed ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), and are enabling the return of the ozone layer toward 1980 levels.” In truth, the report states the recovery of the ozone layer is “expected to occur before midcentury in midlatitudes and the Arctic, and considerably later for the Antarctic ozone hole.”
In brief, the propellants utilized in hairspray and different substances, CFCs in particular, have been banned. However the chemicals that make hair stiff weren’t topic to those regulations. And CFCs have been banned for good reason, regardless of Trump’s implication. Regulations implemented with the Montreal Protocol seem like reversing the harm done to the ozone layer by CFCs in hairspray and other substances.
HFCs: For Higher and For Worse
While hairspray now not uses CFCs to propel the stiffening agent out of the can, it does use other chemicals as propellants which can be potent greenhouse gases — specifically HFCs.
In actual fact, the aforementioned 2014 report additionally found that “climate advantages of the Montreal Protocol could be considerably offset by projected emissions of HFCs used to replace” ozone-depleting substances.
Right this moment HFC use (in hairspray and in any other case) “makes a small contribution” to greenhouse gas emissions every year, clarify the report authors. But emissions from HFCs “are currently growing at a price of about 7% per year” and growing demand might lead to HFC emissions reaching ranges “nearly as high as the peak emission of CFCs” by 2050.
To be clear, CFCs are detrimental to the surroundings for not less than two reasons — they effectively deplete ozone and they are potent greenhouse gases. That is, they contribute to world warming. HFCs, however, wholesale 100 human hair don’t contribute to ozone depletion directly and effectively like CFCs. However they nonetheless negatively influence the local weather as greenhouse gases.
Margaret M. Hurwitz, an atmospheric scientist at NASA, and others found that HFCs might indirectly contribute to ozone depletion by modifying atmospheric temperatures and circulation.
Talking about her Oct. 22, 2015, research revealed in Geophysical Analysis Letters, Hurwitz advised Phys.org that her results don’t recommend “HFCs are an existential risk to the ozone layer.” Nonetheless, “HFCs are, in fact, weak ozone-depleting substances,” she said.
Hurwitz additionally defined to us by email that “[p]er unit mass, CFC-eleven causes about four hundred instances extra depletion of the protecting stratospheric ozone than the HFCs, whereas HCFC-22 causes eight occasions extra ozone depletion” than HFCs, for instance. So the effect of HFCs on the ozone layer is significantly lower than that of CFCs, but it’s not zero.
In addition, Steve Montzka, a chemist at the Nationwide Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, reiterated to us by email, “It was never the stiffening agent in the spray that induced the issue [with the ozone layer], it was the propellant.” We can’t touch upon whether or not “hairspray’s not prefer it used to be,” as Trump claimed. But we will say modifications in hairspray high quality wouldn’t be a results of the substitute of CFCs with HFCs as a result of regulations on the former.
Trump’s Not-So-Sealed Apartment
We additionally asked Montzka whether or not using hairspray inside would stop CFCs or HFCs from having an effect on the ozone layer compared with utilizing it outside, as Trump claimed. “It makes completely no distinction!” he said. When you spray these chemicals “inside your own home or house, it’ll finally make it outdoors.”
“These gases can’t and should not confined to the kitchen or bedroom; they combine, diffuse, and are moved out of the local launch space to be transported all through the lower environment (over months) earlier than they’re transported upward to the stratosphere,” the place the ozone layer is situated, David Fahey, a physicist at NOAA, advised us in an e mail.
In sum, the “eight-inch concrete floors” and “eight-inch concrete walls” of Trump Tower wouldn’t forestall the propellants in hairspray from reaching the ozone layer, which is 6 to 30 miles, not four hundred miles, above the earth’s floor. This means Trump’s hairspray use over the years has either straight (by CFCs) or not directly (HFCs) contributed to the depletion of the ozone layer, albeit to a really small extent, regardless of what he has claimed.